Yanomami is an endocannibalistic tribe living in the rainforests of Brazil and Venezuela – they eat the flesh of their dead relative to preserve the tribe’s unity. Not being eaten after your death means that your soul will be trapped forever in limbo.
The widespread interest in cannibalistic Indian tribes arose in the popular culture in 1980, after the release of the “Cannibal Holocaust” film by an Italian director Ruggero Deodato. The movie was a fake documentary said to be assembled from a gory footage of a film crew, who were trapped, mutilated and eaten by the Yanomami tribe living in the forests on the border of Brazil and Venezuela.
In reality, modern Yanomami do not trap and eat travelers – they are endocannibalistic. Endocannibalism is a practice of eating the flesh of a person, usually a dead relative, after they died. Yanomami believe that this helps them preserve the tribe’s unity.
Yanomami live in impenetrable tropical forests, and their population is estimated to be about 35,000. Their houses are called Shabono or Maloca – circular huts constructed of thatched palm leaves and wood, built in clearings in the jungle. Usually, multiple shabonos surround a central open space. Small huts can have 40-50 people living inside, and bigger ones accommodate up to 250 people. Families do not have separate huts.
The everyday life of Yanomami does not revolve solely around eating human flesh. Their whole life is quite hard and monotonous in their constant struggle for existence: they collect fruits, vegetables and roots, they hunt and fish. Their primary food is bananas and cassava. Yanomami use different poisons for hunting, such as curare, and believe that gods make them resistant to the poison. A Yanomami man can eat a half-cooked piece of meat of an animal killed by a poisoned arrow, while travelers who visited their tribe and tried to do the same, died. They also eat fish, catching it by throwing poisonous plants into a fenced off section of the lake and then gathering it.
As to Yanomami’s endocannibalism – not all of the customs remained till today. When a member of the tribe dies, the whole village gathers to commemorate the event. They burn the body of the deceased on a funeral pyre, because the soul can only achieve a full salvation if the body is burnt. During the cremation, the villagers cry and sing sad songs, with their faces painted black. The burnt remains are then crumbled and put into a big pot, where they are kept until the second part of the funeral ceremony. It could take a long time before the second part of the ceremony is conducted – Yanomami usually delay it until an upcoming festivity. The second part consists of cooking bananas, mashing them and mixing them with the ash and bone of the dead. All the village gathers up to eat the mush – this way, the soul of the tribe member is absorbed by the tribe again and freed for salvation. If they don’t perform this ceremony, they believe that the soul of the deceased will be forever trapped between the world of the living and the world of the dead.
Yanomami always sprinkle their food with ashes – they simply don’t have any salt. If it happens that a visitor brings them some salt, they eat it greedily and close their eyes with pleasure, as if it was sugar or honey. They also love smoking and chewing tobacco, cultivated on their tiny fields, and use the bark of the Virola theidora tree (also known as epena) to make potent psychoactive snuff, adding ashes from the bark of Elizabetha princeps, which they call ama, ama-asita, or chopp. The snuff is used in various rituals.
Death is a very important matter to Yanomami[…]