Aristotle’s Wheel Paradox – To Infinity and Beyond

Hi! I’m Jade. If you’d like to consider supporting Up and Atom, head over to my Patreon page 🙂

Want to know more? Watch this video:
Cantor’s Infinity Paradox –

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Celebrating the Late Tamara Djurovic, AKA Hyuro, and Her Sincere, Monumental Murals

Argentinian artist Tamara Djurovic, who worked under the name Hyuro, died Thursday at her home in Valencia. Known for imbuing her works with sincerity, the artist utilized her large-scale pieces to capture the complexity of human emotion. Her style was distinct and subdued, and her process was informed by her concerns and questions about the world, a process she spoke of at length previously on Colossal.

Source: Celebrating the Late Tamara Djurovic, AKA Hyuro, and Her Sincere, Monumental Murals

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The Green New Deal(s) | US and European Union

Ecosia is the search engine that plants trees:

00:00 Intro
00:20 1.5 degrees
01:46 What are the Green Deals?
02:53 US Green New Deal, explained
03:56 How to save the US GND
05:06 European Green Deal, explained
06:52 How to save the European Deal
07:52 End

The world has a very small carbon budget left not to surpass a global 1.5°C temperature rise. For a 66% chance to curb climate warming, we need to completely decarbonize our economies in about a decade.

The Green New Deal in the US and the European Green Deal lay out a plan for this. But whether our politicians seriously try to tackle the climate crisis depends on the next few months alone.

Both proposals are based on the principle of intersectionality. The climate crisis is a social crisis, which means that the factors that are destroying our planet are the same that are harming people.

Below are some of the resources that guided our research for this video. We have also added a few more links in case you want more information about the Green New Deal and the European Green Deal.


How to call your CONGRESS REPRESENTATIVES and’s policy demands:…

After the US elections of 2020:

Subscription Ask, Inline After Ad……

Other links relevant to US climate policy:………


Climate Emergency Europe! FridaysForFuture letter to EU-Leaders

Produced by Fátima González-Torres (IG: @fatilugonzalevic)
Editing & post-production by Pako Quijada (IG: @pakoquijada)
Motion graphics & animation by Forat Elalfy (IG: @foratau) and Pako Quijada
Writing by Fátima González-Torres
Cinematography by Pako Quijada and agency footage
Make Ecosia your default search engine to plant trees while you search the web:

Ecosia is available for Chrome, Firefox, Safari and many more.

You can also download Ecosia on your mobile:

Stay updated on how Ecosia is helping reforest the planet by visiting our blog:, on Instagram (@ecosia), on Facebook (@Ecosia).

We also have an online shop! The sales from each t-shirt funds the planting of 20 trees at one of our reforestation sites:

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Burt Bacharach’s Clever Key Changes

Along with his lyricist, Hal David, Burt Bacharach crafted some of the best known songs of the 20th century. His writing style is distinct and nuanced, often finding ways to hide complex musical ideas in plain sight, and his key changes were no exception to this!

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Dawn Mander Reporting From Blackpool, England | LOCKDOWN 2 | Coronavirus’ Days

Photographer Dawn Mander is the Edge of Humanity Magazine contributor of this documentary photography.

Blackpool, a town full of color, noise and vibrant life has like every other coastal towns suffered irreparable economic loss and many small local businesses have needed to temporarily close.

I was, however, lucky to find Central Pier in Blackpool still open on the last evening before the second lockdown in November 2020.[…]

More: Dawn Mander Reporting From Blackpool, England | LOCKDOWN 2 | Coronavirus’ Days

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Why the front of the Jet Engine is NEVER painted..

Why are most aircraft painted WHITE and why is the front of the Jet engines NEVER painted?

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This Weird, Cheap Quantum Device Can Run For a Year With a Single Kick of Energy

22 NOVEMBER 2020
The quantum tunnelling sensor chipset and the Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling barriers. (Chakrabartty Lab)

Where we’re going, we don’t need batteries.

As our need for electronic gadgets and sensors grows, scientists are coming up with new ways to keep devices powered for longer on less energy.

The latest sensor to be invented in the lab can go for a whole year on a single burst of energy, aided by a physics phenomenon known as quantum tunnelling.

The tunnelling aspect means that with the help of a 50-million-electron jumpstart, this simple and inexpensive device (made up of just four capacitors and two transistors) can keep going for an extended period of time.

The quantum rules of physics, applying at the smallest atomic scales, means that electrons can behave both as particles and as waves, and the scientists were able to tap into that behaviour to precisely control electron flow from one side of a circuit to the other.

“If you want to get to the other side, you have to physically climb the hill,” says electrical engineer Shantanu Chakrabartty, from Washington University in St. Louis.

“Quantum tunneling is more like going through the hill.”

In order to generate current, devices need to be able to give electrons a hard enough push – something known as threshold energy, because that push needs to be over a certain threshold. When you’re trying to make devices that run on as little power as possible, hitting that threshold can prove tricky.

This is where the quantum mechanics part comes in: by taking certain approaches to shaping the ‘hill’ or barrier that needs to be overcome, it’s possible to control the flow of electrons in a variety of different ways.

In this case, the ‘hill’ is what’s called a Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling barrier, less than 100 atoms thick. By building the barrier in this way, the scientists were able to slow the flow of electrons right down while keeping the system (and the device) stable and switched on.

“Imagine there is an apple hanging from a tree,” says Chakrabartty. “You can shake the tree a little bit, but the apple doesn’t fall. You have to give it enough of a tug to shake the apple loose.”[…]

Continue reading: This Weird, Cheap Quantum Device Can Run For a Year With a Single Kick of Energy

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Violence erupts in Brazil after a black man is beaten to death outside supermarket

A black man has died after being beaten by supermarket security guards in the city of Porto Alegre on the eve of Black Consciousness Day. Videos of the incident circulated on social media and have sparked outrage and protests across Brazil, with people entering Carrefour supermarkets and demanding justice for Freitas
Protests erupt in Brazil after black man dies after being beaten outside supermarket

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Quantum Mechanics: Schrödinger’s discovery of the shape of atoms

General theme
I think it could be useful if I restate the central message of the video here, for clarity:
The shape of hydrogen (and all atoms) is made up by the way the electron spreads itself, as a wave function. This wave function is a blobby shape, and often looks like spheres and donuts put next to one another. The wave function is the electron itself, in a sense. When you don’t disturb it, the electron looks like that. When you do disturb it, it becomes a single hard point, and the blobby shape vanishes.

Specific notes and clarifications:
Schrödinger didn’t really emphasize the shape of atoms in his discovery, instead everyone considered the big discoveries to be:
1) The Schrödinger equation
2) The total hydrogen wave function
3) The energy levels of hydrogen
But the shape of hydrogen follows immediately from the total hydrogen wave function, and since we want to look at those shapes, I figured I should focus on them in this vid.

At 1:40 I talk about the planetary model of the atom. There were actually two variations of the planetary model, the Rutherford model and the Bohr model. It was the Bohr model that made these ‘very nice predictions’ I mention, it gave a relation for the energy levels of hydrogen. It couldn’t explain where these energy levels were coming from though, it took Schrödinger’s discovery of the total hydrogen wave function to explain their origin.
There were also some other atomic models before the planetary model, for instance the cubic model, the Saturnian model and the plum-pudding model. They are now relevant only in a historic sense.

At 2:03 I simplify the discovery of wave-particle duality in electrons a bit. De Broglie was indeed the first to propose it for electrons, but he was building on previous work by Einstein. Einstein had made a formal definition of wave-particle duality in photons (light), and De Broglie was extending it to matter.
The four situations I list are also more of a hindsight-view that justify De Broglie’s pitch. They are: Compton scattering between electrons and photons, the photographic-plate part of the double slit experiment, the crystal-grate part of the double slit experiment and electron free-particle behavior.

At 4:13, I draw eight orbitals of hydrogen as an example, but there are more. Strictly speaking there’s an infinite amount of orbitals, of which about the first 80 are important for chemistry and physics. I picked these eight to draw simply because they make nice examples of which shapes hydrogen can take.
Many of those 80 orbitals actually look rather alike. Often you’ll have several orbitals that have the same shape, just flipped 90°, or with an additional set of small blobs nested within the big blobs.

The spotty picture I draw at 5:38 of the thousand positions of the electron is somewhat simplified. I draw every position inside the three blobs — but this is not quite correct. The blobs are what are known as “90%-probability surfaces”. Basically, you have a 90% chance of finding the electron within these blobs. The remaining 10% of sightings will fall somewhat outside the blobs. Like any wave, the electron wave function decays slowly and stretches out for quite a while. I didn’t want to draw these extra 10%, because I thought it would be confusing.
The argument still holds though: There really is an area in between the blobs where you cannot encounter the electron, called a nodal plane.

At 5:44 I refer to the electron’s wave function as ‘probability wave function’. This is a slip of the tongue on my part, the phrase is either ‘probability distribution’ or ‘wave function’.
There is also a subtle difference between those two phrases, the probability distribution is the absolute squared of the wave function: P = |Ψ|². But, for the purpose of the video, they are both ‘blobby shapes’.

The ’40 years of heated debate’ I mention at 6:09 was about the interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the philosophical implications. Things like teleportation, determinism and statistical randomness were discussed, leading to several different interpretations, the main ones of which were: The Copenhagen interpretation, the Many Worlds interpretation and Realism.
Einstein (who favored Realism) strongly disliked the statistical, random nature of the wave function, and he summed it up in a famous statement: “I, for one, am convinced that God does not throw dice”.
His stance was ultimately disproven in a series of experiments that proved Bell’s theorem.

Noooo no more room for notes :(, I have the final notes here:

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This Village’s Adorable Christmas Lights Are Designed by Kids | Kottke

In the Scottish village of Newburgh, the Christmas lights hung up around town were designed from drawings done by local schoolchildren. Poppy McKenzie Smith shared some of the displays on Twitter. This is the best,[…]

Source: This Village’s Adorable Christmas Lights Are Designed by Kids

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